5 Facts
Hanging Garden Of Babylon

1.Who built the Hanging Garden of Babylon?
Nebuchadnezzar (605- 562 B.C.), The King of Babylon.

2.Why did he built them?
It is believed that he built them to please his wife, Amyhia, who came from Persia and disliked the flatness of the city of Babylon

3.How were they built?
The gardens were laid out on terraces built in tries over arches, the whole structure rising to some 106.7 metres. The ascent from tier was by steps. The terraces were overlaid with "earth" sufficiently deep to support trees and shrubs.

4. What kind of trees were planted?
Trees planted there included Oak, Pine, Willow, ash, Orange, Pomegranate, and palm.

5. How were the plants watered?
It is believed that these gardens were irrigated by water taken from cisterns at the summit

Sri Aurobindo

1.Who was Sri Aurobindo?
Sri Aurobindo was a great Philosopher, Teacher, Social reformer, Yogic and Political thinker.

2.When was he born?
He was born on 15th August 1872 in Calcutta.

3.How did he spend his early life?
He completed both his school and college education in England. After a brief stint in the Baroda services, he plunged himself into the freedom movement.

4.Where did he establish his Ashram?
At Pondicherry, in 1910, then a French territory.

5.Who was his most important associate?
The mother. Born of French parents, she came to Pondicherry in 1914 and helped Sri Aurobindo in all educational, Spiritual and administrative aspects of the Aurobindo Ashram

Bertrand Russell

1.Who was Bertrand Russell?
He was an outstanding English Mathematician, Philosopher, Scientific thinker and logician who influenced the thinking of an entire generation.

2.When was Bertrand Russell born?
On 18th May, 1872.

3.Why was he imprisoned during the world war first?
He was a pacifist and was strongly opposed to the war. He was, therefore, denounced as a triator and imprisoned.

4.Which are among his more famous works?
The Principal mathematica (with A.C. white head); The Analysis of matter. The outline of Philosophy, Mysticism & logic and the history of western Philosophy are among his famous works.

5.What prize was he awarded in 1950?
He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1950.


1.Who was Amritdevi?
Amritdevi lived in the village of Khejadali in Rajastan in the 18th century. She died while protecting a tree.

2.Why was she protecting a tree?
She belonged to the Bishnoi community which believes that animals should not be killed and trees should not be cut.
3.Who was trying to cut down the tree that Amritdevi died for?
The king of Jodhpur needed wood for building a palace and had sent his soldiers to cut trees in Amritdevi's village. The bishnois, led by Amritdevi, did not allow the soldiers to cut down the trees.

4.How did they do that?
Each one hugged a tree. The soldiers attacked them and killed Amritdevi and more than 300 others. When the king heard of what had happened he was horrified and ordered his men to stop cutting the trees.

5.Does the Bisnoi community still exists?
It does. This small community in Rajastan continues to protect trees and animals and every year Bishnois gather at the village of khejadali for a religious fair

Marie Curie

1.Who was Marie Curie?
She was a polish born scientist who discovered Polonium and Radium.

2.Where did she do her research work?
Her most important work was done in a draughty, leaky shed in courtyard at the school of Physics in Paris.

3.When did she get the Nobel Prize?
The first time in 1903 along with Pierre curie and Bacqurel and once again in 1911 for Chemistry.

4.What was her source of radium?
She got both Polonium and Radium from PITCHBLINDE ore obtained from the mines of Bohemia.

5.Why is her death considered ironic?
In those days, the deadly properties of radioactive substance were not known. Her death in 1934 was caused by exposure to radioactivity, the very phenomenon that she helped the world to understand


1.What is DDT?
DDT is the initials of a chemical 'dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane' used as an insecticide since the 1940s.

2.Has DDT benefited mankind?
Yes. Many countries including India have managed to bring malaria under control chiefly through the use of DDT.

3.Is it true that some countries have banned the use of DDT?
Yes. DDT is now banned in several countries including the USA.

4.What is the reason for question no 3?
It has been found that DDT does not break down into harmless substances like most other insecticides. It remains in the soil and ultimately gets into our bodies through our food.

5.Does DDT do any harm if it collection our body?
Nobody knows for sure in the meantime Indians are consuming more DDT than any other people in the world.


India's First Lady Doctor

1.Who was India's first lady doctor?
India's first lady doctor was Anandibai Joshi.

2. Where was she born?
She born at Kalyan, near Bombay on March 31,1865.

3.How did she become a doctor?
Her education began after her marriage to Gopal Rao Joshi, a postal clerk, at the age of nine. In the beginning Gopalrao taught her himself. When their eldest child died they decided that Anandibai should become a doctor to serve her countrymen. She was 14 years old at that time.

4.Where did she get her medical degree?
Gopal Rao Joshi scraped up enough money to send her to America. There she got admission to the Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania and graduated from there in 1886.

5.Did she practice in India?
Unfortunately she could not do that. Tuberculosis, which was a killer disease in those days, claimed her on February 26, 1887, four months after her return from America.


1.When were rockets invented?
The Chinese used rockets as early as in the 11th century. Rockets were also used during wars in the last century.

2. Who is the father of the modern rocket?
Werner Von Braun, the German Scientist who perfected the legendary V2 rocket during world war 2nd.

3.What is the speed required to launch a rocket into orbit and into outer space?
A speed of 8000 metres per second or 8km/sec, is necessary to launch a rocket into the earth's orbit and a speed of 11.2km/sec, is needed to launch it to the moon.

4.Where is India's rocket launching base?
At Sriharikota in Andhra pradesh.

5.What are the parts of a conventional rocket?
Payload, Propellant, Liquid Oxygen, Turopump, Trust, Combustion chamber, Fins, Nozzle, Reaction.

Chemical Weapons

The idea was first conceived by the German chemist Firtz Harber during
WW 1.

2.Which was the first chemical weapon used?
Chlorine. It was sprayed on unsuspecting Allied Forces at Ypres, France on April 22, 1915. Later, Harber came up with a deadlier weapon- mustard gas.

3.What sort of chemical weapons are used today?
Chemical weapons of today are of two basic types- blistering agents (like mustard gas) and the nerve gases.

4.What do blistering agents do?
Mustard gas and other blistering agents quickly penetrate the skin and get to the flesh below. Later huge blister appear and the skin sloughs off leaving gaping wounds. If inhaled they can burn the throat and blister the lungs.

5.How do nerve gases act?
Nerve gases like Sarin and Tabun (both developed in Germany during WW 2) are odourless gases which it inhaled or obsorbed by the skin kill in minutes by paralyzing the nervous system.

Birth of Bangladesh

1.What was Bangladesh Known as earlier?
Eat Pakistan.

2.When was Bangladesh born?
In December 1971 after several months of fighting between the Pakistani Army and the Bangladesh freedom fighters, supported by the Indian army.

3.Who was the Indian general who accepted the surrender of the Pakistani forces under Gen. A.A.K. Niazi?
Gen. Jagjit Singh Aurora.

4.Which was the second country, after India, to recognize Bangladesh?

5.Who was the first President of Bangladesh?
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman


The Tower of London

1.How big is the tower of London?

The Tower of London consists of a group of buildings encircled by a series of fortifications. The inner wall has 13 towers and the outer wall has 6 tower and 2 bastions and is surrounded by a moat. The complex is spread over 13 acres.

2.Who built the Tower?
It was begun by William the conqueror about 1078 A.D

3.For what purpose?
He built it for the protection of London and to instill fear in the hearts of the English.

4.When did the rest of the buildings of the Tower come up?
Most of the other buildings came up during the reign of Henry Ill (1216-71). The tower was a royal residence for several centuries.

5.What is it used for now?
The tower houses the Crown Jewels and the national collection of arms and Armour. It is a great tourist attraction



1.What was Mummy?

Embalmed bodies of the dead, found mainly in Egypt.

2.Why were the bodies preserved?
They were preserved in the belief that the soul would continue to exit as long as the mummified body was preserved.

3.How was mummification done?
Firstly, the internal organs were removed and the corpse was soaked in a mixture of salt and alum for several weeks. Then the body was filled with spices and smeared with a resinous paste. It was then swathed with linen bandages and placed in a double coffin and buried.

4.What else did the Egyptians mummify?
Apart from humans, they also mummified bulls, dogs, cats, crocodiles, birds, fishes and even insects.

5.Where else did this custom prevail?
Mummies have also been found in Peru and Mexico


1.Which is the original home of the potato?
Peru in South America. It was introduced to Europe by the Spaniards in the late 16th century.

2.Did it find ready acceptance in Europe?
No. As it is related to a poisonous group of plants, the potato was viewed with suspicion. But in time it found acceptance and poor people all over Europe become totally dependent on it.

3.Where did the Great potato Famine occur?
By the 1800s, the potato was the chief food of the people of Ireland. In 1845 a disease destroyed the potato plants there and there was a potato famine over a million Irish starved. Thousands of Irish emigrated to America.

4.Who brought the potato to India?
The Portuguese and the British.

5.Is the potato fattening?
No, says the American Medical Association. One medium sized boiled potato contains less calories that an apple.