DID YOU KNOW
Helium was discovered by
British scientist named sir Norman lockyer in 1868. While studying
the sun through a spectroscope. He noticed a mysterious line appearing
in the spectrum. This was attributed to a new element, which did
not Exist on earth it was called helium from the word Helios meaning
sun in the Greek.
Many years later scientist discovered the presence of helium in
our atmosphere its amount was so less that in 250,000cubic feet
of air 1 cubic feet of helium existed. Helium is very useful element
because of it lightness it is used in army and navy blimps, weather
balloons. In certain parts of Texas, New Mexico and Kansas natural
gas wells exist for obtaining helium.
Galileo was the first to
notice the rings around the planet Saturn. They extended for about
170,000 miles. The middle ring is the brightest. It is separated
from the outer ring by a dark space. The inner ring is very dim
as far as is known, the ring are not made of continuous mass of
solid or liquid mater.
They are composed of tiny, separate pieces of matter, but when
seen from the earth they seem to be joined because of the way
the ring are inclined we first see their northern side and then
their southern side.
Dogs, cats and other mammals are colour blind. They cannot
tell one colour from another. Their sense of smell is so advanced
that they can differentiate between objects by their sense of
So the long hairs of the cat's whiskers are what it depends
on to know where it is, what there when the other sense organs
cannot provide that information. But cats do have keen senses.
Their hearing and sense of smell are highly developed. They
have eyes that are directed towards this allows the cat to focus
both eyes on the same subject at the same time and to focus
The cats eyes are also adapted to seeing in the dark during
the day the pupil contract to slits, but at night they open
wide to let in every bit of light of possible.
A fog is a cloud contact
with the ground. When a cloud is near or on the surface of the
earth it is simply called fog. The most common fogs are those
seen at night and in the early morning over the lowlands and small
bodies of water they are caused by a cold current of air from
above striking down upon the warmer surface of the cold current
of the land or water.
In the autumn they are very common, because the air is cooling
faster day by day than the land or the water. As the earth cools
at night the lower air gets cooler. Fog forms when this cool air
meets the warm air just above. City fogs because of the pollution,
are much thicker than the country fog.
Julius Caesar was the first
government official record to order a traffic control regulation.
He passed a law that no woman was it drive a chariot in Rome.
Later, when the automobile was invented, the first traffic controllers
were foot patrolmen, who directed the traffic by their hand. Then
they were given hand-operated traffic lights. It was not until
the early 1920s that automatic traffic lights were first used.
In 1927, it was improvised to adjust to the amount of traffic
passing through the intersection at a given time. One of these
lights, invented by Harry Haugh of Yale University, was first
installed in New Haven, in April 1928.
John Ericsson (1803-1889)
was born in Sweden, the son of a mining engineer. He was educated
largely along engineering lines.
When he was 17, he joined the army where his designs and maps
soon become famous. Among his inventions were an instruments for
taking sea soundings, a tubular steam boiler that saved steamship
fuel, and a self-acting gun lock that made it possible to discharge
naval cannon at any elevation despite the rolling of the ship.
In 1836 Ericsson invented the screw propeller, which was used
by the first steamships in regular trans-Atlantic service.
The 24-hour day is based
on the ancient Egyptian style, which was divided by day and night.
They made shadow these shadow clocks or sundials had 12 periods
of time to divide the day and they were the first timepieces.
The next kind of timepieces developed used fire and water. A candle
with notches cut in the sides will measures time as it burns from
notch to notch. Or a dish with a small hole in the bottom can
be set on water. After a certain periods of time the floating
dish will fill with water and sink.
The hourglass was developed about 2,000 years ago. Two hollow
containers were connected so that could flow from one to the other.
The top container was filled with enough sand to flow through
the hole in one hour.
Elephants have an enormously
heavy body, which may weigh about 5 tonnes. That is why their
legs are short shaped like stout pillars.
The two ivory tusks that protrude from the upper jaw of an elephant
are actually overgrown teeth. These tusks are used to dig up roots
for food, used as weapons for defence. In the case of Indian elephants
only the males have tusks.
The elephant's trunk is an extension of the nose and upper lip.
It serves the elephant as hand, arm, nose and lips. It contains
a great number of muscles, probably as many as 40,000. As a result,
it is very strong and flexible. Because of this great strength,
the elephant can use its trunk very effectively.
Clouds can sometimes stop
making rain. The saturated cloud which contains water droplets,
when meets a mass of warm air, evaporate. This is due to the warm
temperature, which makes the droplet in the cloud evaporate before
it can reach the earth as rain.
However, if the air beneath a cloud is moist, the droplets get
bigger and condensation takes place. Pretty soon, each tiny droplet,
become a drop and falls down as rain.
Bartolome Murillo was a painter
with a difference. He was more interested in the people he used
as subjects than the intricacies of his paintings. This is why
his paintings are regarded as sentimental.
Born in Serville, Spain, he became an orphan at the age of 10.
Later he went to Madrid where he was trained by the great painter,
Diego Velazquez. In 1645, he returned to Seville and made it his
home for the rest of his life.
Murille was a prolific painter. He painted mostly for churches
He also painted groups of beggars and peasants realistically.
His hallmark was his excellent use of silver and golden colours
which brought a touch of radiance to his paintings.
The earliest painters were cavemen. Paintings of animals were
discovered which were a dated back to 30,000 to 10,000 B.C. in
southern France and Spain. Many of these coloured drawings are
amazingly well preserved since the caves were sealed up for many
The cave artist filled the walls with drawings in rich bright
colours. Some of the most beautiful paintings are in the cave
of Lascaux in France. The pigments used by the cave painters were
earth ochers (iron oxides varying in colour from light yellow
to deep orange) and manganese.
These were crushed into a fine powder, mixed with grease, and
put on with some sort of brush. It made the paint fluid and the
pigment's particles stick together. The cavemen must have made
brushes out of animal hair or plants.
a comet approaches the sun, a tail usually appears behind it.
It consists of very thin gases and fine particles of matter that
are shot off from the comet's nucleus when it comes under the
influence of the sun.
Comet tails are very different in shape and size.
Some are short and stubby. Others are long and slender. They are
usually at least 5 million miles in length. Sometimes they are
almost 100 million miles long! Some comets have no tails at all.
As the tail grows, the comet gains in speed because it is nearing
the sun, moving towards its headfirst. Then a curious thing happens.
When the comet goes away from the sun, it goes tail first with
the head following. This is because the pressure of light from
the sun drives off the very small particles from the comet's head
to form its tail, always in a direction away from the sun.
Fleas are terrific jumpers.
They have the extraordinary capacity to jump 7 to 8 inches into
the air and 12 inches forwards. This is equivalent to humans jumping
450feet into the air and 700 feet forward. Fleas are parasites
which lives on dogs and cats by sucking their bloods.. They have
a small round head with mouthparts which are adapted to sucking.
They have a tiny body with no wings and three pairs of legs.
There are hundred of species of fleas. In the US alone there are
50 different kinds of fleas. Fleas also infest rat s, squirrels,
tame and wild birds, and nearly all other warm-blooded animals.
During the middle ages flea infested rats spread bubonic plague.
After infesting on the rat, the infected flea jumped on the humans
thus spreading the dreaded disease.
Differences in pressure may
exist in a small region around you, and you will have a local
wind blowing. If you live near the shore, you have and example
of this every day. During the day, the land become heated, the
air above it rises, and cool winds come in from the water to takes
its place. At night, the water, and the breeze blows out from
the land to take place of the rising warm air.
What is true in your immediate neighbourhood is true on a much
larger scale of the winds that blow over the Earth. The warmest
place on Earth is around the equator. So there is always a belt
of warm air rising from this region.
No one really knows when
or where the secret of making glass was first learned, though
we know it has been used since very early days. The chief ingredients
for making glass are sand, soda ash or potash and lime, melted
together at a high temperature. Since these materials are found
in abundance in many parts of the world, the secret of glassmaking
could have been discovered in many countries.
According to one story, the ancient phoencians deserve the credits
for this discovery. A crew of a ship landed at the mouth of a
river in Syria. When they were ready to cook their dinner, they
could find to stones on which to support their kettle. So they
used lumps of niter (a sodium compound) from the ship's cargo.
Most of the changes that
take place on the surfaces of the Earth after an earthquakes are
seen along this fault line. The part of the fault line where the
vibration is felt most strongly is called the "epicenter
" of the earthquake. And if this is near a city, the destruction
may be very great. The loss of life is usually due to failing
buildings and fires that may be started by broken gas mains under
The single region of the earth that has the most frequent earthquakes
is Japan. There is an earthquakes there almost every day of the
year. Of course, most of these are very minor quakes and do no
damage at all. Another region that has frequent earthquakes is
the Mediterranean area.
The earthquakes regions of the earth and area of recent volcanic
activity are roughly the same. This is because both of these are
regions where the earth's crust is not at rest.
If the earth were not rotating,
winds would be north winds or south winds. But the spinning of
the earth makes winds in the Northern Hemisphere deflect to the
right and in the southern Hemisphere to the left.
The winds blowing towards the equator are called "the trade
winds." Those blowing towards the poles are called "the
westerlies." The US is largely in the zone of the westerlies.
There are other "prevailing" or common winds in other
parts of the world. But as you can see, the wind does come from
somewhere-and it comes from there because of very definite rezones
caused by the way the air over the earth is heated
Some kinds of mosquitoes
carry germs that cause disease, such as yellow fever, malaria
and sleeping sickness. The germs that cause the disease are picked
up by the mosquito and the passed on to another person it bites.
Typhus us a disease carried by the body louse. It is a serious
danger whenever people must live in crowded conditions. Flies
play a part in the spread of such disease as cholera, dysentery,
hepatisis and typhoid fever. These diseases, like all those that
are spread of carried by insects, are les apt to occur if and
area is kept free of dirt- and if the insects are prevented form
The beds of rock salt that
are formed in various parts of the world were all originally formed
by the evaporation of seawater millions of yea ago. Since it is
necessary for about nine-tenths of the volume of the sea water
to evaporates for rock salt to the formed, it is believed that
the thick rock-sale beds that are found were deposited in what
used to be partly enclosed seas.
These evaporated faster than fresh water entered them, and the
rock-salt deposits were thus formed.
Most commercial salt to obtained from rock salt. The usual method
is to drill wells down to the sale beds. Pure water is pumped
down through a pipe. The water dissolves the salt and it is forced
through another pipe up to the surfaces
The legendary metal
gold occurs in nature most exclusively in native state. First
found by chance, it was being mined by 3000 BC and was being chemically
extracted from crushed quartz (by amalgamation with mercury) by
1000B, or hammering into shapes and is resistant to corrosion
and to chemical attack.
The conventional test for gold is to drop hydrochloric or nitric
acid separately onto the metal; pure gold resists either acid
alone but dissolves in a mixture of the two, known as aqua regia.
In amnesia by forgetting his
anxiety, a man also forgets a great many other things, even including
his identity. He may still act in a normal manner, but be unable
to recall anything about the past.
He acts so normally that the may move about without attracting
notice. Or he may wander restlessly from place to place. Or he
may assume a new identity. Then he may suddenly recover his memory.
Where this doesn't happen, psychiatric help may enables him to
do it. When he does regain his memory, he may not recall events
that took place during his period of amnesia.
Chewing Gum is made of
a gum base, sugar, corn syrup and flavouring. The gum base us
what keeps it chewy for hours. For preparing the gum base un the
factory, the materials are sterlised in a steam cooker and pumped
through a centrifuge. This machine spins at high speed and throws
out bits of bark and dirt found in the raw gums.
The clean melted gum base us mixed with sugar, corn syrup and
flavouring. The mixture usually contains 20% gum base, 63% sugar,
16% corn syrup, and about1% flavouring oils. Some of the more
popular oils are spearmint, peppermint, clove and cinnamon.
While this mass is still warm, it is run between a pair of rollers.
It is thinned down into a long ribbon. Powder on both sides prevents
the gum from sticking.
The blood that flows through
the arteries, capillaries and veins of your body contains many
different materials and cells. Each part of the blood has its
own special work and importance.
There is, first of all, the liquid part of the blood. This is
called the plasma, and it makes up a little more than half the
blood. It is light yellow and a little thicker than the water
because many substances are dissolved in it.
The red cells (also called red blood corpuscles) give the blood
its colour. There are so many of them in the blood that it all
looks red. There are about 35 trillion of these tiny, round, flat
discs moving around in your body all at once. And they stay in
the blood vessels at all times.
The reason we say "God
bless you" after someone sneezes cannot be traced to any
single origin, but seems to be connected with ancient beliefs.
The Romans thought a person, expelled evil sprits when he sneezed,
so everyone present would say "Good luck to you" after
a sneeze, hoping the effort to expel the spirit would succeed.
Primitive people believed that sneezing was a sign of approaching
death. When anyone sneezed, therefore, people said "God help
you" because the person sneezed was in danger.
During the sixth century there was a plague in Italy, and Pope
Gregory the Great offered that prayers be said against sneezing.
It was at this time that the custom of saying, "god bless
you" to persons who sneezed become established
Superstitions about lucky
and unlucky days are just as common as those about numbers, and
Friday probably has more than any of them centering about it.
In ancient Rome, the sixth day of the week was dedicated to Venus.
When the northern nations adopted the Roman method of designating
days, they named the sixth day after Frigg or freya, which was
their nearest equivalent to Venus, and hence the name Friday.
The Norsemen actually considered Friday the luckiest day of the
week, but the Christians regarded it as the unluckiest. One reason
for this is that Christ was crucified on a Friday.
Humphrey Davy (1778-1829)
was born in Cornwall, England, the son of a wood carver. Davy
was educated to be a Doctor, but he soon turned to chemistry,
one of his first outstanding discoveries was that of nitrous oxide,
or laughing gas, which was used as an anaesthetic by surgeons
and dentists. He was made a professor of chemistry in the Royal
Institution of London when he was 21. His greatest invention was
the Davy safety lamp, a small oil-burning lamp covered with a
cylinder of wire gauze the absorbed the heat of the flame. It
was in 1815. It reduced the danger of fires in mines.
The moon circles the Earth
in an orbit that takes about one month to complete. It also spins,
or rotates, on its axis, and it takes 27 days, 7 hours, and 43
minutes to make one rotation. Because the orbit and the rotation
takes about the same amount of time, the moon always keeps the
same side facing the earth.
The moon does not shine with its won light the way the sun does.
It only seems to shine, because it reflects the sun's light. As
the moon travels around the Earth, different parts of its are
lighted up by the sun.
Sometimes you see the whole visible face of the moon lighted up,
and at other times you see only a part of the moon's face lighted
up. This is what makes the moon look as though it were changing
shape in the sky.
Children's books writer Annie
Johnston published her first book Big Brother in1893. The Little
School, her most popular book, was published in 1895 and made
into a movie in 1935. It is the story of a little southern girl
with the lively temper of her old grandfather, a colonel in the
The Little Colonel was the first of 12 books about the adventures
of his little girl. Johnston made her heroine like a girl she
had met when visiting the peewee valley, near Louisville. Because
she liked the peewee valley so much, Johnston moved there in 1898.
It was her home until she died.Three years later Ericsson went
to the US and in 1848 became a naturalized American citizen. His
life in America was given over to many engineering projects. One
of the most important was the construction of iron warships built
with their machinery below the water and hence out of the reach
His most famous ship of this type, the Monitor, was built for
the North in the "war between the states". It fought
the confederate Merrimac in the first battle between ironclad
There are two important
characteristics that set mammals apart from all other animals.
They are the only animals that posses true hair, or fur. And they
are the only animals that produce milk. The word "mammal"
comes from the Latin word "mamma", which means "breast".
All female mammals nurse their young with milk that comes from
glands, usually called breasts, on their bodies.
Mammals have certain other characteristics. The mammal's lungs
and heart are separated from its stomach and intestinal tract
by a wall of muscles called the diaphragm. The mammal's lower
jaw consists of a single bone on each side. And-most important
of all- mammals brains are much more highly developed than the
brains of any other animals.
Koh-i-noor, the famed diamond
set in the crown of Elizabeth the Queen Mother, has had a chequered
history. It is an Indian stone found in Kollur, on the banks of
the river Krishna in Andhra pradesh in 34 BC. It was discovered
by a miner who, though he tried to hide it in a wound he made
in his thigh, was found out and put to death.
Originally a lumpy Mughal-cut stone that lacked fire and weighed
191 carats, it was recut to enhance its fire and brilliance to
a109-carat, shallow, oval brilliant in 1852 at Garrods of London,
with different results.
According to some experts, Sultan Ala-ud-Din Khilji is credited
with having taken the jewel in1304 from the Raja of Malwa whose
family had owned it for many generations.
Some historians have identified it with the diamond given to the
son of Babur, the founder of Mughal dynasty, by the Raja of Gwalior
after the battle of Panipat in 1526, still others contend that
it was presented to the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan in 1656. Some
claim that the stone was cut from the Great Mughal diamond described
by the Great French jewel trader Jewan.